Egypt is located in northeastern Africa. The nation has a coastline at the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Suez, and the Red Sea in the north and east, respectively. Libya borders it in the west, the Palestinian territory (Gaza Strip) and Israel in the northeast, and Sudan in the south. Egypt shares maritime borders with Cyprus, Greece, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Jordan,
Modern Egypt became independent in 1922. From 1958 until 1961, Egypt was united with Syria as the United Arab Republic.
The Arab Republic of Egypt covers an area of 1 million km²; this is almost twice the size of France or more than twice the U.S. State of California. Due to its large desert regions, the country’s population is concentrated along the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley and Delta. Along its coasts, only about 3% of the territory is inhabited.
Egypt has a population of approximately 92.4 million inhabitants (2017). The capital and largest city are Cairo. Spoken language modern Standard Arabic; colloquial language is the Egyptian-Arabic dialect. Egypt is a country with a predominantly Muslim population, about 87% of Egyptians are Sunni Muslim. Islam religion controls many aspects of social life and is endorsed by law.
- Pyramids of Giza Luxor’s Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings
- Islamic Cairo
- Abu Simbel
- Egyptian Museum
- White Desert
- Siwa Oasis
- St. Catherine’s Monastery
- South Sinai
- Abydos Temple
- Thistlegorm Dive Site
- Nile Cruising
Egypt has an unusually hot, sunny and dry climate. Average high temperatures are high in the north but very high in the rest of the country during summer. The cooler Mediterranean winds consistently blow over the northern sea coast, which helps to get more moderated temperatures, especially at the summertime height. The Khamaseen is a hot, dry wind that originates from the vast deserts in the south and blows in the spring or the early summer. It brings scorching sand and dust particles, and usually brings daytime temperatures over 40 °C (104 °F) and sometimes over 50 °C (122 °F) in the interior, while the relative humidity can drop to 5% or even less. The absolute highest temperatures in Egypt occur when the Khamaseen blows. The weather is always sunny and clear in Egypt, especially in Aswan, Luxor and Asyut. It is one of the least cloudy and least rainy regions on Earth.
Transport in Egypt is centred around Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile. The nation’s 40,800-kilometre (25,400 mi) railway network runs from Alexandria to Aswan and is operated by Egyptian National Railways. The vehicle road network has expanded rapidly to over 34,000 km (21,000 mi), consisting of 28 line, 796 stations, 1800 train covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea coasts, the Sinai, and the Western oases.
The Cairo Metro
The Cairo Metro in Egypt is the first of only two full-fledged metro systems in Africa and the Arab World. It is considered one of Egypt’s most important recent projects, which cost around 12 billion Egyptian pounds. The system consists of three operational lines, with a fourth line expected in the future.
EgyptAir, which is now the country’s flag carrier and largest airline, was founded in 1932 by Egyptian industrialist Talaat Harb, today owned by the Egyptian government. The airline is based at Cairo International Airport, its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The Current EgyptAir fleet includes 80 aeroplanes.
The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt considered the most important centre of maritime transport in the Middle East, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after ten years of construction work, it allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa. The northern terminus is Port Said, and the southern terminus is Port Tawfiq at the city of Suez. Ismailia lies on its west bank, 3 kilometres (1 7⁄8 miles) from the halfway point.