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Jammu and Kashmir, India’s union territory (until October 31, 2019, a state), located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent centred on the plains around Jammu to the south and the Vale of Kashmir to the north. The union territory is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947. Legislation passed in August 2019 set the stage for downgrading Jammu and Kashmir from statehood to union territory status and splitting off a part of it, known as the Ladakh region, into a separate union territory. The change went into effect on October 31 of that year, though several court cases affecting its status remained pending in the years that followed.


By Air

Srinagar airport, now famously known as Sheikh Ul-Alam International Airport Srinagar, operates flights to India’s major cities like Goa, Delhi, Leh, Mumbai, Bangalore and Jammu. Some of the flights operated by this airport are IndiGo, Air India, GoAir and Jet Airways. Srinagar airport is located at a distance of 14 kms (approx) from the city centre.

Jammu also has its airport, which is located just 8 kilometres southwest of the city of Jammu. All major airlines of India operate daily flights to & from Jammu City.

By Train

At present, there is no railway station in Srinagar. The nearest railway station to Srinagar is Jammu Tawi Railway Station, located almost 300 kilometres away from Srinagar. Jammu Tawi Railway Station operates several daily trains to Delhi like New Delhi-Jammu Tawi Rajdhani Express, Jammu Mail and Jammu Tawi Express.

By Road

Jammu & Kashmir enjoys good road connectivity and can be reached by road. The National Highway (NH) 1 & NH44 connects Kashmir to major cities of India. The Jawahar Tunnel, which connects Jammu to the valley of Kashmir, also lies along this route. Buses operated by the J&K State Road Transport Corporation (JKSRTC) also connect Jammu to other nearby cities like Patnitop (110 km), Srinagar (264 km) and Amritsar (214 km).


JAMMU is a sub-tropical region. The climate varies in different parts of the division. The southern plains experience a similar environment for Punjab. The summers are hot with rainy seasons. Winters are cool. The mountains regions experience weather similar to that of Kashmir. These regions receive snowfall. While as, the plains receive light to heavy rainfall. Seasonal winds originating from the Mediterranean Sea also influence the weather of division. The temperature dips during the rainy season; however, the humidity remains high. Jammu is the hottest of the three divisions in Kashmir. The average temperature during peak summer may go up to 38°C.

 KASHMIR has probably the best climate in the state. Its temperature is primarily regulated by the Himalayas, surrounding mountains and water bodies. It has four demarcated seasons with distinct features. Each season is moderate and beautiful. The winters’ temperature may go down to -15°C in the hilly areas, while the plains have a comparatively better climate at -5 to -8°C. The local people wear woollen clothes and a long gown known as Pheran to save them from the chill. They also use a portable fire pot, Kangri, to keep warm. The month of July is the hottest month with the temperature going up to just above 30°C in the plains, while the upper reaches remain comparatively more relaxed; from the heat in the plains, Chinar trees come to the rescue. These giant giant-size trees provide an excellent cool shade in the hottest of summer, so much that you occasionally get chills under them. Autumn and spring have warm days and cool nights. The valley receives rains during the spring season.